Volume 3, Issue 5, September 2017, Page: 63-71
Saw Dust Ash Substitution for Cement Pastes-Part I
H. H. M. Darweesh, Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
M. R. Abo El-Suoud, Botany Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
Received: Oct. 18, 2016;       Accepted: Dec. 21, 2016;       Published: Nov. 28, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajasr.20170305.13      View  2583      Downloads  59
Abstract
The saw dust (SD) is often used as a fuel which in turn leads to the environmental pollution. So, it must utilize this waste into useful applications to avoid what is known as “air pollution”. In this study, the SD was converted to saw dust ash (SDA) by its firing at 500°C. It is then used as a partial substitution for cement. The results showed that the water of consistency (WC), initial setting time (IST) and final setting time (FST) of the Portland cement pastes are decreased with the substitution of SDA due to the presence of Na-lignosulfonate. The bound water content (BW), bulk density (BD) and compressive strength (CS) increased with time of hydration up to 90 days, while the apparent porosity (AP) decreased. The BW, BD and CS of the cement pastes containing 5-15 wt. % SDA are slightly higher than those of the blank (S0) at all hydration ages. The free lime content (FL) of the Portland cement pastes (S0) increased as the hydration progressed onward, whereas the cement pastes with SDA (S1-S5) only increased up to 3 days and then decreased. The FTIR spectra of the OPC without SDA showed that the free lime content increased as the hydration proceeded till 90 days, while that of the optimum cement mix containing 15 wt. % SDA, the FL content increased only up to 3 days and then progressively decreased until nearly disappeared after 90 days.
Keywords
OPC, Saw Dust Ash, Hydration, Setting, Free Lime, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, Strength, IR
To cite this article
H. H. M. Darweesh, M. R. Abo El-Suoud, Saw Dust Ash Substitution for Cement Pastes-Part I, American Journal of Applied Scientific Research. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2017, pp. 63-71. doi: 10.11648/j.ajasr.20170305.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Raheem, A. A.; Nwakanma, E. O. and Ogunleye, K. O., “Engineering Properties of Concrete with Palm Kernel Shell as Fine and Coarse Aggregates”, USEP, Journal of Research Information in Civil Engineering (RICE), Vol. 5 No.1, 2008, 58-70.
[2]
Svoboda, P. and Prochazka, M., “Outdoor earthen plasters”, Organization, Technology and Management in Construction: an International Journal, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2012, 420-423.
[3]
Raheem, A. A.; Falola, O. O. and Adeyeye, K. J. “Production and Testing of Lateritic Interlocking Blocks”, Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, Malaysia, Vol.17 No.1, 2012, 35-50.
[4]
Antiohos, S.; Maganari, K.; Tsimas, S. (2005), “Evaluation of blends of high and low calcium fly ashes for use as supplementary cementing materials”, Cement & Concrete Composites, Vol. 27, 2005, 349-356.
[5]
Hossain, K. M. A. (2003), “Blended Cement using Volcanic Ash and Pumice”, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 33, 2003, 1601-1605.
[6]
Siddique, R. (2004), “Performance characteristics of high-volume Class F fly ash concrete”, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 34 No.3, 2004, 487-493.
[7]
Wang, S.; Miller, A.; Llamazos, E.; Fonseca, F. and Baxter, L. (2008), “Biomass fly ash in concrete: Mixture proportioning and mechanical properties”, Fuel, Vol. 87, pp. 365-371.
[8]
Wang, S. and Baxter, L. “Comprehensive study of biomass fly ash in concrete: Strength, microscopy, kinetics and durability”, Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 88, 2007, 1165-1170.
[9]
Balendran, R. V. and Martin-Buades, W. H. (2000), “The influence of high temperature curing on the compressive, tensile and flexural strength of pulverized fuel ash concrete”, Building and Environment, Vol. 35 No.5, pp.415-423.
[10]
Waswa-Sabuni, B.; Syagga, P. M.; Dulo, S. O. and Kamau, G, N. (2002), “Rice Husk Ash Cement – An Alternative Pozzolana Cement for Kenyan Building Industry”, Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT, Vol. 8, pp. 13-26.
[11]
Adesanya, D. A. and Raheem, A. A. (2009), “A study of the workability and compressive strength characteristics of corn cob ash blended cement concrete”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 23, 2009, 311–317.
[12]
Adesanya, D. A. and Raheem, A. A. (2009), “Development of corn cob ash blended cement”, Construction and Building Materials; Vol. 23, 2009, 347 – 352.
[13]
Raheem, A. A.; Oyebisi, S. O.; Akintayo, S. O. and Oyeniran, M. I. (2010), “Effects of admixtures on the properties of corn cob ash cement concrete”, Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies, Vol. 16, 2010, 13 – 20.
[14]
Cheah, C. B. and Ramli, M. “The implementation of wood waste ash as a partial cement replacement material in the production of structural grade concrete and mortar: an overview Review Article, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 55, Issue 1, 2011, 669-685.
[15]
Elinwa, A. U.; Ejeh, S. P. and Mamuda, A. M. (2008) “Assessing of the fresh concrete properties of self-compacting concrete containing sawdust ash, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 22 Issue 6, 2008, 1178-1182.
[16]
Elinwa. A. U. and Mahmoodb, Y. A. (2002) “Ash fron timber waste as cement replacement material, Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 24, Issue 2, 2002, 219-222.
[17]
Mageswari, M. and Vidivelli, B. “The use of saw dust ash as fine aggregate replacement in concrete”, Journal of Environmental Research and Development, Vol. 3 No. 3, January-March 2009, 720-726.
[18]
Hewlett, P. C. “Lea's Chemistry of Cement and Concrete”; 4thEdn.; John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York, 1998.
[19]
Neville, A. M. “Properties of concrete”.4th edn. Essex (UK): Longman, 1995.
[20]
Kersener, Z.; Darweesh, H. H. M. and Routil, L. “Mortar composites from waste materials” J. Cem. Hormigon, Spain, Vol. 2, No. 943, 2011, 12-19.
[21]
Keršner, Z.; Darweesh, H. H. M. and Řoutil,L. “Pastas de cemento con unelev adocontenido de escorias activadasa lcalinamente con silicato de sodioy`water glass”, Revista Tecnica CEMENTO HORMIGON, ISSN: 0008-8919, No. 945, 2011, 16-24.
[22]
ASTM –Standards “Standard Test Method for Normal water of Consistency of Hydraulic Cement”, C187-86, 1993, 148-150.
[23]
ASTM –Standards “Standard Test Method for Setting Time of Hydraulic Cement”, C191-92, 1993, 866-868.
[24]
ASTM-Standards “Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Dimension Stone”, C170-90, 1993, 828-830.
[25]
Darweesh, H. H. and Awad, H. M. “Effect of the calcination temperature and calcined clay substitution on the properties of Portland cement pastes”, iiCl’industria italiana del Cemento, 844, 2008, 486-401.
[26]
El-Didamony, H.; Darweesh, H. H. M and Mostafa, R. A. “Characteristics of pozzolanic cement pastes Part I: Physico-mechanical properties” Sil. Ind. (Cer. Sci. &Techn.), Belgium, 73, Nr. 11-12, 2008, 193-200.
[27]
Darweesh, H. H. M. “Utilization of Perlite Rock in Blended Cement-Part I: Physicomechanical Properties”, J. Chemical and Materials Sciences, (DRCMS), ISSN 2354-4163, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2014, 1-12.
[28]
Darweesh, H. H. M. and Abo El-Suoud, M. R. “Setting, hardening and mechanical properties of some cement / agrowaste composites - Part I”, Amer. J. Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2014, 32-40.
[29]
ASTM-Standards, “Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete”, C 618-12 a, 1978.
[30]
Rukzon, S. and Chindaprasirt, P. “Strength of ternary blended cement mortar containing Portland cement, rice husk ash and fly ash”, J. Eng. Inst. Thailand, 17, 2006, 33-37.
[31]
Raheem, A. A.; Olasunkanmi, B. S. and Folorunso, C. S. “Saw Dust Ash as Partial Replacement for Cement in Concrete”, Intern. Journ. of Organization Technology and Management in Construction, 4, 2, 2012, 474-479.
[32]
Metha, P. K. “Proc. work shop on rice husk ash cement”, Peshawar, Pakistan. Bangalore, India: Reg. l Cent. Techn. Trans., 1979, 113-122.
[33]
Darweesh, H. H. M. “Setting, hardening and strength properties of cement pastes with zeolite alone or in combination with slag” InterCeram (Intern. Cer. Review), Germany, Vol. 1, 2012, 52-57.
[34]
Ramachandran, V. S.; Feldman, R. F.; “Concrete Admixtures Handbook, Properties, Science and Technology”, 2ndEdn.; Noyes PubIications: New Jersey, 1995.
[35]
Aiad, I. “Influence of time addition of superplasticizers on the rheological properties of fresh cement pastes”, Cem. Concr. Res., 33, 8, 2003, 1229–1234.
[36]
Darweesh, H. H. M. “Utilization of Ca-lignosulphonate prepared from black liquor waste as a cement superplasticizer”, J. Chemistry and Materials Research, Vol., 1, No. 2, 2014, 28-34.
[37]
Darweesh, H. H. M. “Black liquor waste as a cement admixture or Cement and/or concrete Admixtures”, Chapter 6 of Book entitled “Biopolymers and Biotech. Admixtures for Eco Efficient Construction Materials” by F. Pacheco-Torgal, V. Ivanov, N. Karak and H. Jonkers, 2015, 99-130.
[38]
Abdel-Kader, A. H. and Darweesh, H. H. M. “Setting and hardening of Agro/cement composites”, BioResources, 4 (1), 2010, 43-54.
[39]
Darweesh, H. H. M. “Effect of the combination of some pozzolanic wastes on the properties of Portland cement pastes” iiCL'industria italiana del Cemento, Italy, 808, 2005, 298-311.
[40]
Elinwa, A. U. and Ejeh, S. P. (2004), “Effects of the incorporation of sawdust waste incineration fly ash in cement pastes and mortars”, Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, Vol. 3 No.1, pp.1-7.
[41]
Hague, M. N. and Kayali, O. (1998), “Properties of High-Strength Concrete using a Fine Fly Ash”, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 28 No.10, pp. 1445-1452.
[42]
Echart, A.; Ludwig,H. M. and Stark, J. "Hydration of the four main Portland cement clinker phases", Zement-Kalk-Gips, 28, 8, 1995, 443–452.
[43]
Onwuka, D. O.; Anyaogu, L. and Chijioke, C. and Okoye, P. C. “Prediction and Optimization of Compressive Strength of Sawdust Ash-Cement Concrete Using Scheffe’s Simpex Design”, Intern. Journ.of Sci. and Res. Pub., ISSN 2250-3153, 3, 5, 2013, 1-9.
[44]
Darweesh, H. H. M. and Abo-El-Suoud, M. R. “Quaternary cement composites from industrial byproducts to avoid the environmental pollution”, J. EC-Chemistry, 2, 1, 2015, 78-91.
[45]
Elinwa, A. U. and Abdulkadir, S. (2011) “Characterizing Sawdust ash for Use as an inhibitor for Reinforcement Corrosion” New Clues in Science. 1-10.
[46]
Raheem, A. A.; Olasunkanmi, B. S. and Folorunso, C. S. “Saw Dust Ash as Partial Replacement for Cement in Concrete”, Technology and management in construction, 4, 2, 2012, 474-480.
Browse journals by subject